International rules and respect for the commitment they represent are the products of decisions made on the basis of values leading to common interests or goals, such as the furtherance of human dignity. States cooperate in certain situations, which can comple states to act together in certain ways. Even in the academic formulation, interim rules become customary international law once a large enough number of states having an interest in them act in accordance with them
This week U.S. President Obama is welcoming more that 50 heads of state and foreign ministers to Washingtom D.C for the fouth Nuclear Security Summit. The Nuclear Security Summit process was initiated in the comprehensive speech that the President gave in Prague in 2009, when he announced that the United States would be hosting the first summit on nuclear security.
The United States hosted the first of these gatherings—dubbed the Nuclear Security Summit—in 2010. Two subsequent Summits were heldin the Republic of Korea in 2012 and in the Netherlands in 2014.
In that speech, the President laid out four pillars of the approach to pursue peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons, while noting, of course, that so long as nuclear weapons exist we will need to have a strong and credible deterrent for the United States and our allies. Specifically, the President laid out U.S. policies related to nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear security, and nuclear energy.
Beyeond preventing nuclear terrorism, the world have made important progress toward the broader vision President Obama outlined in Prague. The U.S.- China cooperation is also an opportunity to address the threat posed by North Korea and also to advance U.S. and China cooperation on a range of issues and to build trust in relation at the highest leaves securing nuclear materials.
In a Washington Post op-ed, the president shared his vision for a future free from the nuclear threat. and progress on Nuclear security since 2009, including the Iran Deal, with support of the European Union. You can read the Summary: In a Washington Post op-ed, here in which the President outlines the steps he’s taking with the international community to to stop the spread of nuclear weapons.
Since the Obama Administration initiated the Nuclear Security Summit process, the international community has made significant progress on counter nuclear smuggling—including by working together to build capabilities to prevent, detect, and respond to radiological and nuclear smuggling threats. This includes the actions of both governments and international organizations, as demonstrated by the recent Global Counter Nuclear Smuggling Conference convened by INTERPOL, which included law enforcement officials from more than 110 countries.
These threats remain at the top of Summit participants’ priority list.
The seizure of weapons-grade nuclear material in Georgia in 2010 and Moldova in 2011 suggests that these types of materials could still remain in illegal circulation. In addition to locking down material under government control, the international community is working together to investigate smuggling networks, remove nuclear and other radioactive material from the black market, and arrest individuals involved.
The United States, for example, has several programs underway that are making nuclear and radiological facilities and international borders more secure than ever before. Other countries have made similar progress—both on their own and, sometimes, with help from the U.S. government. Better preparedness may evert the threat of nuclear terrorism and reduce the risk and the effects of nuclear terrorism. The point is to be as well prepared as possible. So long as any such weapons remain, there is a risk that they will one day be used, by design or accident. and any such use would be catastrophic.
As the President said back in Prague, a terrorist attack with an improvised nuclear device would cost an enormous amount in terms of human life, and could also have profound political and economic and environmental effects on global security as well.
And so, therefore, this is a challenge that demands the type of international cooperation that world leaders are promoting through the Nuclear Security Summit process.
There are good cooperation examples, for example, 80 experts from 30 countries and international organizations recently gathered in Karlsruhe, Germany, for a Counter Nuclear Smuggling Workshop co-hosted by the U.S. Department of State and the European Commission—the second workshop of its kind. Experts shared approaches to detecting, investigating, and building criminal cases against nuclear smuggling activities.
Such efforts are most effective when national government agencies closely cooperate and international partners share information in a timely manner.
Many states, like Sweden, do not perceive a need for nuclear weapons of their own. Some have assurances of protection through their alliances and other arrangements. Some may well have responded to political and diplomatic pressure to renounce nuclear weapons, while others may not have had a technical capability to develop them.
Others, even if they could have made a nuclear weapon, have abhorred such weapons and wanted to join a treaty that could be an obstacle to the continued possession of the deadliest weapon in history. Nation such as Japan may be toward the upper left reflecting great capability to acquire nuclear weapons but weak intent to do so. A terrorist group such as Al-Qaeda might have a very high measure of intent but minimal capability.
The first, nuclear proliferation problem relates to make progress towards nuclear disarmament by the nuclear-weapon states parties, including Russia. Allies have also affirmed their desire to work with Russia on reciprocal transparency steps. While seeking to create the conditions for further nuclear reductions, NATO is willing to continue to ensure that the Alliance´s nuclear deterrent remains safe, secure, and effective, as NATO is committed to remaining a nuclear alliance for as long as nuclear weapons exist.
President Obama’s administration has invested more than $5 billion in it. That figure includes funds given to Russia and other countries to help secure their nuclear weapons arsenals, to convert research reactors so they burn fuel that cannot be used in weapons, and to improve the physical protection and accounting of nuclear explosive materials such as plutonium and highly-enriched uranium.
The Obama administration’s goals for arms control and security cooperation with Russia are the right ones, but they cannot be achieved as long as US-Russian strategic stability is in question.
So the issue of nuclear security, security of nuclear materials, is absolutely vita, and these conferences, led by the United States have achieved a huge amount of nuclear security right around the world. Fewer countries with highly enriched uranium, better processes in terms of transport security, physical security.
And of course the Iran deal, where you´ve got a country giving up its nuclear program, that has been a massive breakthrough, and all credit to the United States for working so hard to make it happen. Getting there, however, required difficult negotiation, and tough diplomacy ensureing that Iran woul not gain access to nuclear weapons.
The second set of problems concerns other radioactive material in the black market and the breaches of the treaty or of IAEA safeguards obligations by a small number countries like Libya, Iraq, (Iran) and North Korea, that their actions have undermined the confidence in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and international community.
- The basic ideas at the heart of the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty continue to have strong international support, that more fingers on more nuclear triggers would result in a more dangerous world, and that non-proliferation by the have-nots and disarmament by the haves will together lead to a safer world.
President Obama famously proposed an ambitious nuclear risk-reduction program in a speech in Prague at the beginning of his first term, and followed it up with a number of early achievements. He reiterated the importance of his agenda in a June 2013 speech in Berlin. In Berlin, President Obama called on all nations to begin negotiations on a treaty that ends the production of fissile materials for use nuclear weapons.
At this Washingtom D.C Summit (the fouth Nuclear Security Summit) ” – We’re strengthening the global regime — including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty — that prevents the spread of nuclear weapons”. – President Obama
The international community must remain united in the face of North Korea’s continued provocations, including its recent nuclear test and missile launches. “President Xi and I are both committed to the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and full implementation of U.N. sanction on North Korea”, and to discuss how we can advance our trilateral security cooperation through our ongoing cooperation with the Republic of Korea and Japan- President Obama said before his meeting Asian leaders.
At the Summit the US and EU leaders France, Germany, the United States, Britain had a meeting on Iran with Russia and China at the table – at the Nuclear Summit. And one of the points of discussion was everybody should be encouraging Iran not to continue its missile activities, not to continue to ship arms, because that will upset and roil the marketplace.
Iran needs to make some clear decisions about the role it intends to play in the region and in the world. Iran should try at least to be part of a peace process with respect to Yemen and try to end the conflict in Syria. But there is lack of that effort from Iranian leaders.
- The international community must remove nuclear and other radioactive material from the black market.
- North Korea must abide by the requirement of respect for international law.
Of all the threats to global security and peace, the most dangerous is the proliferation and potential use of nuclear weapons.
A third problem, is related to the second and illustrates the prospect of the ISIS groups and other extremists to getting a weapon and other radioactive material from the black market. . This is one of the greatest threats to global security. There are more than 15,000 nuclear weapons left on the planet, and there are countries and terrorists threatening to acquire and use them. Whether by accident or by malice, it would just take one nuclear weapon detonating in New York, London, or Mumbai to kill instantly hundreds of thousands of innocent civilians.
Terrorist flying drones to spread highly radioactive material over a civilian area. Nuclear drones from dark WEB cited by Obama: That´s part of the nightmare scenario President Obama urges world leaders to consider and better ways of controlling Nuclear Material.
We know that terrorist organizations have the desire to get access to these raw materials and their desire to have a nuclear device. That was certainly the case with al Qaeda, and that is certainly the case with ISIL as well. And given the ongoing concern about chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria, we have seen ample proof that terrorist organizations like ISIL have no regard for innocent human life or international norms, and that only redoubles the need for us to have effective international nuclear security approaches.
Preventing Nuclear Terrorism
I´m grateful to leaders from 50 countries who came to this years Nuclear Security Summit in Washington with committed goal of enhancing mutual security. The most crucial step on the final day of the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington was preventing nuclear terrorism, to prevent spread of nuclear material into potentially dangerous hands, and ultimately to put an end to them as threat to world, more information sharing, and better preparedness.
It was President Obama who wanted this summit on nuclear security that all states are absolutely required to comply with to ensure that there could be no intrusion in a nuclear power plant by dangerous individuals terrorist to ensure that there could be no use of fissile matter something that could not only represent a major danger to countries but to the entire planet as well.
And the summit process itself serves as an accountability mechanism for individual countries to be following through on their commitments. Everyone understand that urgency of defeating terrorist groups like ISIL, and preventing more terrorist attacks requires more information sharing. And now, it´s international agency that will have the ability to conduct these inspections and, in light of the current context, namely terrorism, it is very important that countries make a certain number of commitments so that we may achieve this security in the righ way and to make sure we deal with the threat of terrorism together.
Given the coninued threat posed by organizations such as the terrorist group ISIS or ISIS, we will alls join allies and partners in reviewing our counterterrirsm efforts, to prevent the world´s most dangerous networks from obtaining the world´s most dangerous weapons. The Swedens´s FM Margot Wallström, lead Swedish delegation at Nuclear Security Summit hosted by President Obama.
Upcoming Conference – SIPRI, in cooperation with the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT: REVISITING THE LEGACY OF OLOF PALME –