When we think of the world in dynamic terms as being open to change, that conduces to the public good, the legitimacy of authority becomes the condition for effective action. All the more difficult against this background, is the alternative concept of global governance, a continuing process of policy negotiation among states and its communications under recurrent pressure from manifold manifestations of civil society that has been faltering in its ability to establish confidence in its efficacy.
In all major fields of international law, e.g. environmental law, economic law, human rights law, international humanitarian law, health law, peace-and security law demands for more transparency have recently been voiced by civil-society actors, by states, and within the international institutions themselves and have to a large extent also been honoured. A cross-cutting legal principle of transparency is emerging and what this might mean for international law, specially for the well-functioning of negotiations and deliberations.
In our era, we face now a set of amazing challenges – diplomatic efforts to end the war in Syria and Ukraine crisis raising tensions in the international system, to continued support peace, security and stability in individual regions, and in the world as a whole, countering terrorism and violent extremism in Africa and the Middle East, and addressing key regional security issues in the Asia-Pacific, including maritime disputes in the South China Sea, nonproliferation, human trafficking, to curbing greenhouse gases to promoting shared prosperity among all people. Enormous progress has been made in that direction. That’s good news. But still there are much more to be done.
It is wise to refrain from assuming that today’s turbulent global environment and boundaries will be the same tomorrow. To deal effectively with these issues, how global policy and global order is decided will affect the way in which the major issues confronting the future of humanity can be dealt with. There is a call for the creation of greater global coalitiona on shared values through a diplomatic process. And to find a common system and principles, responsibiity between states is the major challenges of the world politics and international relations today.
Faced by these new challenges, earlier this week , the U.S. Secretery of State, John Kerry, visited Indiana University, one of the finest public universities in America, to convey an important message about the United States of America’s foreign policy: advancing global policy in four critical areas.
You can read here how the U.S. Secretery of State, John Kerry defines U.S. Foreign Policy in a Changing World and his entire remarks at Indiana University here. on how each of us can make different in shaping A better world.
Speaking of world that is finding common ground, Sec Kerry underscored despite the many challenges we face, we have many reasons to be confidence.
- A Trade Agreement That Represents 40 Percent of the Global Economy
- A Potential Climate Accord That Will Require Contributions from Every Nation
- A Nuclear Agreement Involving Iran and Six Very Different Global Powers
- A Counterterrorism Coalition of 65 Members That Carries with it the Hopes of Good and Decent People Everywhere.
These issues are all global in scope: Each is a product of principle and pragmatism, embodying both what world leaders should do and what we can do. And each will have an impact on the United States of America’s foreign policy advancing global policy, and the liberal global order in a changing world.
The first is a global trade agreement that reflects our values, directly guiding grand policies within the arena of international economics and trade that grows all our economy, creates mor jobs and opportunity. Growing economic and political interdependence among nations affects the substance and procedures of national policy making, including of course the channels for communications, to engage in international cooperation.
The question which concerns us here is whether deepeing economic integration improves the channels for the expression of democratic policy instruments and preferences. It is clear that deepeing economic integration may improve the quality of policy making by making national leaders more aware of the international impacts of their decesions, and make more open to ideas and suggestions coming from their foreign counterparts, from international institutions, and from non-governmental organizations to satisfy the demands of their citizens.
In fact, the demand for more transparency in public decision making, the search for new forms of accountability, and the growing reliance on persuasion rather than on traditional forms of governmental coercion can be shown to be related, at leas in part, to growing economic and political interdependence. This is the more optimistic view which sees international integration and cooperation as an opportunity not only to expand the scope of consumers choice, but also enrich the national agenda. And today it’s more integrated and the world is more globalized and integrated than ever before.
Foreign trade should be viewed as an opportunity, not a threat. This connection, as Sec John Kerry said many times, from the day he was nominated, that foreign policy is economic policy (a trade policy that needs a novel 21st century approach).
However, as Sec Kerry says; the globalization is not simply a policy choice on which you can come down on one side of the other. It is a force driven not only by technology, but also by the aspirations of people around the world for opportunity and a better life. The angoing TTIP and TPP negotiation among states also matters for reasons far beyond trade. That will be welcome news for our allies and friends, a huge boost for stability achieved through international cooperation in a region vital to our future well-being, and glad tidings for American companies and workers.
A second major area along global trade, where the world is coming together is on global climate change.
As the COP21 talks in Paris approach, the attention of the international community is fixated more than ever on climate and risks climate change impacts pose to international security. And how the United States can work with international partners to enhance climate resilience. In just two months, representatives from around the world will gather in Paris to approve what Mr Kerry hope will be by far the most ambitious agreement on global climate ever reached. There’s nothing uniquely liberal or conservative, Republican or Democrat, American or foreign about wanting to preserve the health of our planet. “We’re all affected because we all share the same fragile home”.
If, together, we continue to put in the hard work, if we stick to the revolutioneary course that we´re on, if we refuse to get sidetracked by those who cannot see beyond the outmoded and downrightt dangerous energy sources of the past, and if we have the common sense to respond boldly to the urgency of this moment, then we will unlock the enormous potential of these opportunities for renewable energy development to come for our businesses and our communities. An opportunity to transform the way people live, which is to safeguard the future for genarations. Ee have distributive power and other opportunities available to us, which a lot of people have worked very hard to new directions for economic growth in a low carbon future energy.
A third area where major countries have come together with U.S. leadership— along with the European Union is a nuclear agreement involving Iran and six very different global powers. It is true that this is stabilization policy creating an historic agreement to prevent Iran from acquiring a nuclear weapon and to ensure that Iran’s nuclear program will be exclusivelyimage peaceful going forward.
A primary U.S. objective in international negotiations with Iran has been to limit Iran´s enrichment capacity.
No one can deny that this agreement, building on previous interim or framework agreements (concluded in Geneva in November 2013 and Lausanne in April 2015), is a comprehensive one. And should Iran violate any aspect of this deal, the U.N., U.S., and E.U. can snap the sanctions that have crippled Iran’s economy back into place. Now, with this deal in place, the U.S., our allies, and the international community can know that tough, new requirements will keep Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon.
This agreement, moving now to the implementation stage, came together as a result of years of tough diplomacy extending over two presidencies. And every nation in the region — including Israel, key allie of U.S. and many European powers — is safer because of the agreement.
Only by direct negotiations with support from a broad array of partners — including Russia, China, and the leaders of Europe -were we able to convince Iran’s top officials to accept the severe limits on their nuclear program that they have.
The fourth critical area in which the United States have come together with different partners is the fight against international terrorist organizations. A counterterrorism coalition of 65 Members that carries with it the hopes of good and decent people everywhere.
Along with climate change, international terrorist organizations may well be the defining challenge of our generation
In order to discuss terrorists organizations and conflict between states it is highly important that there is more willingnes to engage in international cooperation. And without principles and management as an instrument of domestic stabilization policy there is no way to fight against terrorism and it would mean nothing from the point of view of international law.
This is a long-term struggle that will be won with a comprehensive approach in concert with state and nongovernmental actors across the globe—which is exactly what the UN70 Leadership Summit hosted by President Obama, highlighting the international community’s efforts to counter ISIL, addressed.
The President has made clear that ISIL poses a threat to the the international community, and that we will use all instruments of power to defeat it. He has also made clear that this fight will not be won quickly, solely through military means, or by the United States alone.
So to find a way out of this conflict we have to bring together all who oppose both despotism and terrorism. And the way to do that is through a diplomatic process that gives hope to every Syrian who wants to marginalize the extremists and put in place a government capable of uniting and leading the whole country. The opposition to international terrorists — whether groups like ISIL (or Daesh) in the Middle East, al-Shahbaab in East Africa, and Boko Haram in West Africa — and repugnance at their actions has become a powerful unifying force.
The right of self‑defence in Article 51 of the UN Charter shows in some detail the clear legal basis for military action against ISIL in Syria and Iraq. because of the grave danger that ISIL poses to our security now and in the future. Over the past 14 months, the 65 member U.S.-led Global Coalition has launched thousands of air strikes forcing Daesh to change how it conducts military operations and impeded its command and control. The Coalition continues to strike Daesh targets in both Iraq and Syria, degrading its leadership and putting it under more pressure than ever before.
As it should be, because the terrorists are committing heinous crimes that include: destroying ancient cultural treasures; attacking schools and butchering teachers; beheading innocent journalists; and literally auctioning off terrified girls in a modern day slave market complete with notarized sales contracts; and using the term “marriage” to describe what is actually systematic rape.
In Syria, we see a chance to increase pressure on Daesh from more than one direction, especially if Russia makes good on its commitment to help. But the reality is there will be no end to the refugee crisis that comes with an increased migration until there is an end to the conflict. All these initiatives are distinct in purpose, but each requires both American leadership and the strong support of our partners.
American leadership is critical to global success. And America’s choices matter to the rest of the world.
Finally, the basic objective of US strategy must be to protect the Wold of Liberty, which is an unstable duel commitment to both global justice and American “well-being”. This is, anyway, the centrality of U.S. exceptionalism, mostly unstated, that becomes a non-negotiable norm. Every bit as much as Roosevelt’s pledge to make America the world’s “arsenal of democracy” by challenging the nation to become an “arsenal of democracy,”Like Americans before, then and since, he viewed the promise of American democracy as an ever-evolving concept.
In Central and Western Europe we have achieved far greater liberty than ever before, and in the most diverse spheres. But, the restoration of a military balance in Europe is not an end in itself. It is the necessary condition for the development of relations between East and West. Over the past two years, the United States has increased military activities in Eastern and Central Europe to reassure allies and partners security and territorial integrity. The persistent, rotational U.S. air, land, and sea presence in the region provided for by ERI funding began following the Russian occupation of Crimea and continues today.
In June 2014, President Obama announced the ERI to increase U.S. force presence in Europe, expand exercises and training with NATO Allies and partners, and augment prepositioned equipment for use in joint exercises. Allies reinforced these efforts at the September 2014 NATO Summit in Wales when they agreed to the Readiness Action Plan, which included a series of assurance and adaptation activities to enhance NATO’s defense posture and increase allied readiness and responsiveness.
The United States together with its closest allies and partners face unprecedented international challenges that pose significant threats to global security and prosperity. It is vital that U.S. EU and NATO cooperate demanding security challenges we face today. And U.S. is engaged in more areas of the world, on more issues, with more partners then any other time in history. The fact is that every fundamental issue of conflict today, the United States is in the center leading and trying to find an effort to make peace where peace is very difficult.
International politics today is as much institutional as intergovernmental. It is sometimes possible to transfer policy-making powers to higher level of governance, so that what can not loneger be done at the national level my be achieved through international cooperation. Support for human rights and vibrant civil societies remains at the fore front of American foreign policy. And “We have a duty to peace” say U.S. Secretery of State, John Kerry.
This is also true if there is a security gap in the sense of inability of protection. From this standpoint, the logic of international institutions and international Law built on shared values of distributive and procedural justice should be able to perpetuate themselves in the absence of strong central authority as long as members perceive the specific norms and normenforcement to be anchored in these shared values.
The main basis of the global coalition’s actions against ISIL in Syria is the collective “self-defence” of Iraq. This is a topic that the UNS council has explored many times. Going back to the 9/11 attacks and even before, to condemn terrorism and also to take concerted action to counter violent extremist organizations. Iraq has a legitimate government, one that we support and help to contribute to long term solution for Iraq’s new government.
It is also clear that the Assad regime is unwilling and/or unable to take action necessary to prevent ISIL’s continuing attack on Iraq. For the international community it is important to address risks facing our partners. This Global Coalition has united to agree a common, multifaceted and long-term approach to degrade and defeat ISIL which was reiterated most recently in a joint statement released on 28 September 2015.
In Iraq, with support from Coalition air forces, Da’esh can no longer operate freely in more than 30% of the populated territory it once held. Tikrit has been liberated, and more than 100,000 civilians have returned there and to surrounding areas. In northern Syria, Da’esh has lost much of the territory it had seized, and is now cut off from all but about 100 of the 822-kilometer border between Syria and Turkey.
More than 5,000 Coalition trainers and advisors from 18 countries are in Iraq supporting the Iraqi government’s efforts to strengthen and develop local security forces in the campaign to liberate Ramadi and in preparation for the liberation of Mosul. Separately, more than 900 Coalition personnel are assisting the train and equip mission for Syrian opposition.
We will work with our partners to reduce conflict, and to promote stability, good governance and human rights. Vision that reflect a world, in which source of insecurity are identified and causes of conflicts and the security threats we face are prevented or resolved, and peace is sustained.
Upcoming Events May 2, 2016: This year’s theme is “America’s Role in the World,”
Atlantic Council´s Strategy Initiative, in the Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security, for its flagship annual conference, the Global Strategy Forum.